Migración y cambio climático

Etienne Piguet, Antoine Pécoud, Paul de Guchtenerire

Resumen


El cambio climático se ha convertido en una preocupación fundamental para la comunidad internacional. Entre otras consecuencias, su influencia en la migración es objeto de una creciente atención tanto de los encargados de formular políticas como de los investigadores. Sin embargo, el conocimiento en este campo es aún limitado y fragmentario. Por ello en el siguiente estudio sepresenta un panorama general del nexo entre cambio climático y migración. Sobre la base de las conclusiones empíricas disponibles, en él se estudian los aspectos clave de la cuestión, comprendido el contexto político y social en que surgió el tema; las respuestas de políticas de los Estados y los pareceres de los diferentes actores institucionales;las perspectivas críticas sobre la relación efectiva entre el medio ambiente y la migración (forzada); los conceptos y nociones más adecuados para tratar esta relación; las implicaciones encuanto a los derechos humanos y al género; así como el derecho internacional y las orientaciones de las políticas. Surgen aquí dos debates relacionados entre sí: el primero atañe al peso de los factores ambientales y climáticos en la migración y su relación con otrosfactores que pueden estimular la migración o desalentarla, ya sean de naturaleza social, política o económica. El segundo se refiere al marco normativo en el que debería darse tal fl ujo de migración y elmodo en que se debe tratar a las personas que se trasladan debidoa factores ambientales. Ambos asuntos están íntimamente entrelazados;en efecto, la medida en que el medio ambiente determinala migración está estrechamente vinculada a la manera en que se considera a la población afectada.

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