Procesos cognitivos y afectivos implicados en la resolución de problemas: desarrollo e intervención

Elena Escolano-Pérez, Mª Ángeles Bravo Álvarez

Resumen


Este trabajo recapitula los principales conocimientos existentes acerca de las funciones ejecutivas, entendidas como un conjunto de procesos cognitivos y afectivos de alto nivel que nos permiten resolver problemas y adaptarnos a las situaciones novedosas y complejas. Se presta especial atención a su desarrollo durante los primeros años de vida y la maduración de las bases neuroanatómicas que las sustentan. Dado que las funciones ejecutivas aparecen afectadas en numerosos trastornos, comprometiendo multitud de ámbitos de la vida diaria de estas personas (rendimiento académico; éxito laboral, social y personal; salud y calidad de vida; etc.), se presentan asimismo las características que debe cumplir toda intervención eficaz destinada a su mejora.


Palabras clave


funciones ejecutivas; desarrollo; infancia; bases neuronales; intervención

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive function during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 71-82.

Baddeley, A. D. y Hitch, G. J. (1994). Developments in the concept of working memory. Neuropsychology, 8(4), 485-493.

Baggetta, P. y Alexander, P. A. (2016). Conceptualization and Operationalization of Executive Function. Mind, Brain y Education, 10(1), 10-33.

Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioural inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin,121(1), 65-94.

Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional-Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). En R. Bar-On y J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment and application at home, school and in the workplace (pp. 363-388). San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass.

Barrouillet, P., Gavens, N., Vergauwe, E., Gaillard, V. y Camos, V. (2009). Working memory span development: A time-based resource-sharing model account. Developmental Psychology, 45(2), 477-490.

Bell, M. A. y Wolfe, C. D. (2007). Brain reorganization from infancy to earl childhood: Evidence from EEG power and coherence during working memory tasks. Developmental Neuropsychology, 31(1), 21-38.

Best, J. R. y Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641-1660. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01499.x.

Breukelaar, I. A., Antees, C., Grieve, S. M., Foster, S. L., Gomes, L., Williams, L. M. Korgaonkar, M. S. (in press). Cognitive control network anatomy correlates with neurocognitive behavior: A longitudinal study. Human Brain Mapping.

Bull, R., Andrews, E. K., Wiebe, S. A., Sheffield, T. D. y Nelson, J. M. (2011). Using confirmatory factor analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: sources of variation in emergent mathematic achievement. Developmental Science, 14, 679-692. doi: 10.1111/j.14677687.2010.01012.x

Carlson, S. M. (2005). Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 595-616.

Carlson, S. M., Moses, L. J. y Breton, C. (2002). How specific is the relation between executive function and theory of mind? Contributions of inhibitory control and working memory. Infant and Child Development, 11(2), 73-92.

Carlson, S. M., Zelazo, P. D. y Faja, S. (2013). Executive function. En P. D. Zelazo(Ed.), The Oxford handbook of developmental psychology, Vol. 1: Body andmind (pp. 706-743). New York: Oxford University Press.

Casey, B. J., Galvan, A. y Hare, T. A. (2005). Changes in cerebral functional organization during cognitive development. Current Opinion in Neurobiology,15, 239-244.

Collins, A. y Koechlin, E. (2012). Reasoning, Learning, and Creativity: Frontal Lobe Function and Human Decision-Making. PLoS Biology, 10(3), e1001293. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001293

Craig, F., Margari, F., Legrottaglie, A. R., Palumbi, R., Giambattista, C. y Margari, L.(2016). A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder andattention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment, 12,1191-1202. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S104620

Davidson, M. C., Amso, D., Anderson, L. C. y Diamond, A. (2006). Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4-13 years: Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition and task switching. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2037-2078.

Dempster, F. N. y Corkill, A. J. (1999). Interference and inhibition in cognition and behavior: unifying themes for education psychology. Educational Psychology Review, 11(2), 1-88.

Diamond, A. (1988). Abilities and neural mechanisms underlying AB performance. Child Development, 59(2), 523-527.

— (1990). The development and neural bases of memory functions, as indexed by the A-not-B and delayed response tasks, in human infants and infant monkeys. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 267-317.

— (1991). Neuropsychological insights into the meaning of object concept development. En S. Carey y R. Gelman (Eds.), The epigenesis of mind: Essays on biology and knowledge (pp. 67-110). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

— (2001). A model system for studying the role of dopamine in prefrontal cortex during early development in humans: early and continuously treated phenylketonuria. En C. Nelson y M. Luciana (Eds.), Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience (pp. 433-472). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

— (2006). The early development of executive functions. En E. Bialystok y F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of Change (pp. 70-95). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

— (2013). Executive Functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750

— (2014). Want to Optimize Executive Functions and Academic Outcomes?: Simple, Just Nourish the Human Spirit. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, 37, 205-232.

Diamond, A. y Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333, 959-964.

Diamond, A. y Ling, D. S. (2016). Conclusions about interventions, programs, andapproaches for improving executive functions that appear justified and those that, despite much hype, do not. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 3448.

Dolcos, F. y McCarthy, G. (2006). Brain Systems Mediating Cognitive Interference by Emotional Distraction. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26(7), 2072-2079.

Fagot, D., Dirk, J., Ghisletta, P. y de Ribaupierre, A. (2009). Adults’ Versus Children’s Performance on the Stroop Task: Insights from Ex-Gaussian Analysis. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 68(1), 17-24.

Friedman, N. P. y Miyake, A. (2004). The relations among inhibition and interference control

function: a latent-variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133 (1), 101-135.

Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Young, D. E., DeFries, J. C., Corley, R. P. y Hewitt, J. K. (2008). Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely geneticin origin. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 137(2), 201-225.

Fuster, J. M. (1999). Cognitive functions of the frontal lobe. En B. L. Miller y J. L. Cummings (Eds.), The human frontal lobes: Functions and disorders (pp. 187-195). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

— (2002). Frontal lobe and cognitive development. Journal of Neurocytology, 31 (3-5), 373-385.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The theory of Multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Garon, N., Smith, I. M. y Bryson, S. E. (2014). A novel executive function battery for preschoolers: Sensitivity to age differences. Child Neuropsychology, 20(6), 713736. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2013.857650.

Gerstadt, C. L., Hong, Y. J. y Diamond, A. (1994). The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2-7 years old on a Stroop-like day nighttest. Cognition, 53(2), 129-153.

Goleman, D. P. (1995). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ for- Character, Health and Lifelong Achievement. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Gummow, L., Miller, P. y Dustman, R. E. (1983). Attention and brain injury: a case for cognitive rehabilitation of attentional deficits. Clinical Psychology Review, 3, 255-274.

Hall, P., Crossley, M. y D’Arcy, C. (2010). Executive function and survival in the context of chronic illness. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 39(2), 119-127.

Hongwanishkul, D., Happaney, K. R., Lee, W. S. C. y Zelazo, P. D. (2005). Assessment of hot and cool executive function in young children: Age-related changes and individual differences. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28, 617-644.

Huizinga, M., Dolan, C. V. y van der Molen, M. W. (2006). Age-realted change in executive function: Developmental trends and a latent variable analysis. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2017-2036.

Johnson, M. H. (2002). Neural mechanisms of cognitive development in infancy. En J.McClelland y R. F. Thompson (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (pp. 2103-2108). Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Johnson, M. H., Grossmann, T. y Kadosh, K. C. (2009). Mapping Functional Brain-Development: Building a Social Brain Through Interactive Specialization. Developmental Psychology, 45(1), 151-159.

Kelly, A. M. C., Scheres, A., Sonuga-Barke, E. S. J. y Castellanos, F. X. (2007).Functional neuroimaging of reward and motivational pathways in ADHD. En M. Bellgrove, M. Fitzgerald y M. Gill (Eds.), Handbook of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (pp. 209-235). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Kerr, A. y Zelazo, P. D. (2004). Development of «hot» executive function: the children’s gambling task. Brain Cognition, 55(1), 148-157.

Lehto, J. H., Juujarvi, P., Kooistra, L. y Pulkkinen, L. (2003). Dimensions of executive functioning: Evidence from children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21(1), 59-80.

Lezak, M. D. (1982). The problem of assesing executive functions. International Journal of Psychology, 17(2), 281-297.

Luciana, M. y Nelson, C. A. (1998). The functional emergence of prefrontally-guided memory systems in four-to eight-year-old children. Neuropsychologia, 36, 272293.

Lunt, L., Bramham, J., Morris, R. G., Bullock, P. R., Selway, R. P., Xenitidis, K. y David, A. S. (2012). Prefrontal cortex dysfunction and ‘Jumping to Conclusions’: bias or deficit?. Journal of Neuropsychology, 6(1), 65-78. doi: 10.1111/j.17486653.2011.02005.x.

Luria, A. R. (1973). El cerebro en acción. Barcelona: Martínez Roca.

Mabbott, D. J., Noseworthy, M., Bouffet, E., Laughlin, S. y Rockel, C. (2006). White matter growth as a mechanism of cognitive development in children. Neuroimage, 33(3), 936-946.

Miyake A. y Friedman N. P. (2012). The nature and organization of individual differences

in executive functions: four general conclusions. Current Direction sin Psychological Science, 21, 8-14. doi: 10.1177/0963721411429458

Miyake A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A. y Wager, T.D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex ‘Frontal Lobe’ tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49-100.

Moffitt T. E., Arseneault L., Belsky D., Dickson N., Hancox R. J., Harrington H. y

Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2693-2698. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010076108

Moriguchi, Y. y Hiraki, K. (2013). Prefrontal cortex and executive function in young children: a review of NIRS studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 867.doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00867

Moriguchi, Y., Chevalier, N. y Zelazo, P. D. (2016). Editorial: Development of Excutive Function during Childhood. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00006

Mulder, H. y Cragg, L. (2014). Editorial: Executive Functions and AcademicAchievement: Current Research and Future Directions. Infant and Child Development, 23(1), 1-3. doi: 10.1002/icd.1836

Mundy, P. y Jarrold, W. (2010). Infant Joint Attention, Neural Networks and Social-Cognition. Neural Networks, 23(8-9), 985-997. doi: 10.1016/j.neunet.2010.08.009

Muñoz-Céspedes, J. M. y Tirapu-Ustárroz, J. (2004). Rehabilitación de las funciones ejecutivas. Revista de Neurología, 38, 656-663.

Nigg, J. T. (2000). On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: Views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 220-246.

Pennington, B. F. y Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive Functions and Developmental Psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(1), 51-87.

Perner, J., Leekam, S. y Wimmer, H. (1987). Three-year-olds’ difficulty with false belief: The case for a conceptual deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5(2), 125-37.

Piaget, J. (1937). La construction du réel chez l’enfant. Neuchâtel: Delachaux y Niestlé.

Powell, G. E. (1981). Brain Function Therapy. Hants: Gower-Aldershot.

Prencipe, A. y Zelazo, P. D. (2005). Development of affective decision-making for self and other: Evidence for the integration of first-and third-person perspectives. Psychological Science, 16(7), 501-505.

Pritchard, V. E. y Neumann, E. (2009). Avoiding the potential pitfalls of using negative priming tasks in developmental studies: Assessing inhibitory control in children, adolescents and adults. Developmental Psychology, 45(1), 272-283.

Qehaja-Osmani, F. (2013). Executive Functions and Life Success. IFAC Proceedings-Volumes, 46(8), 247-249. doi:10.3182/20130606-3-XK-4037.00039

Razza, R. A. y Blair, C. (2009). Associations among false-belief understanding, executive functions, and social competence: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.020.

Sabbagh, M. A. (2004). Understanding orbitofrontal contributions to theory-of-mind reasoning: Implications for autism. Brain and Cognition, 55(1), 209-219.

Sergeant, J. A., Geurts, H. M. y Oosterlaan, J. (2002). How specific is a deficit of executive functioning for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? Behavioural Brain Research, 130, 3-28.

Smith, E. E. y Jonides, J. (1999). Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science, 283(5408), 1657-1661.

Stautz, K., Pechey, R., Couturier, D. L., Deary, I. J. y Marteau, T. M. (2016). Do Executive Function and Impulsivity Predict Adolescent Health Behaviour after Accounting for Intelligence? Findings from the ALSPAC Cohort. PLoS One,11(8), e0160512. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160512

Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643-661.

Stuss, D. T. y Benson, D, F. (1986). The frontal lobes. New York, NY: Raven Press.

Wass, S. V., Scerif, G. y Johnson, M. H. (2012). Training attentional control and working memory-Is younger, better? Developmental Review, 32, 360-387. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2012.07.001

Wellman, H. M. (2002). Understanding the psychological world: Developing a theory of mind. En U. Goswami (Ed.), Blackwell Handbook of childhood cognitive development (pp. 167-187). Oxford, UK: Blackwell

Welsh, M. C., Friedman, S. L. y Spieker, S. J. (2006). Executive functions in developing children: Current conceptualizations and questions for the future. En K. Mc-Cartney y D. Phillips (Eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Early Childhood Development (pp. 167-187). Oxford: Blackwell.

Welsh, M. C. y Peterson, E. (2014). Issues in the conceptualization and assessment of hot executive functions in childhood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 20, 1-5. doi: 10.1017/S1355617713001379

Willoughby, M. T. y Blair, C. B. (2016). Measuring executive function in early childhood: A case for formative measurement. Psychological Assessment, 28(3), 319-330. doi: 10.1037/pas0000152.

Wilson, E. A. (1995). Management and remediation of memory problema in brain injured adults. En A. D. Baddeley, E. A. Wilson, y F. N. Watts (Eds.), Handbook of memory disorders (pp. 459-487). Londres: Wiley.

Wimmer, H., y Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception. Cognition, 13(1), 103-128.

Zelazo, P. D. (2005). The development of executive function across the lifespan. About kids Health. Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. Recuperado dehttp://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/ofhc/news/SREF/4292.asp

— (2006). The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS): a method of assessing executive function in children. Nature Protocols, 1, 297-301.

Zelazo, P. D. y Carlson, S. M. (2012). Hot and cool executive function in childhood and adolescence: Development and plasticity. Child Development Perspectives, 6(4),354-360. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00246.x

Zelazo, P. D., Frye, D. y Rapus, T. (1996). An age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them. Cognitive Development, 11, 37-63.

Zelazo, P. D. y Müller, U. (2002). Executive function in typical and atypical development. En U. Goswami (Ed.), Handbook of childhood cognitive development (pp. 445-469). Oxford: Blackwell.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Licencia Creative Commons
Miscelánea Comillas (ISSN impreso: 0210-9522/ ISSN digital: 2341-085X) editada por Universidad Pontificia Comillas se encuentra bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Unported

Miscelánea Comillas

Universidad Pontificia Comillas

Universidad de Comillas, 3-5 - 28049 Madrid