El comercio entre la UE y los asentamientos israelies: cómo los acuerdos técnicos suman injusticia estructural en la cadena de suministro

Anas Audeh

Resumen


Hace ya más de dos décadas, la UE actualizó su comercio preferencial con Israel. Muchos Estados miembros de la UE y multinacionales europeas violan las directivas de obligado cumplimiento de la Comisión Europea que excluyen a Israel del trato preferencial libre de aranceles aduaneros. Este artículo defiende que, a través de la imposición de un entorno coercitivo en los territorios ocupados palestinos, la economía de los asentamientos está relacionada con la injusticia estructural de la cadena de suministros. Muchas multinacionales europeas comercian en asentamientos israelís y contribuyen de manera parcial a la injusticia estructural. La Comisión Europea aborda la injusticia estructural en el marco de acuerdos técnicos, sin embargo, este marco es inútil debido a la desconsideración y la mala fe expresada por aquellos actores relacionados con las empresas presentes en los asentamientos y a la falta de normativas estandarizadas en un marco operacional y responsable. Este artículo desafía un argumento muy arraigado en los estudios publicados, aquel que defiende que el problema en el comercio entre la UE y los asentamientos israelís no es tan solo una disputa territorial y fronteriza, para ello utiliza un método combinado de bases de datos y análisis discursivo.


Palabras clave


UE-Israel comercio preferencial; Comisión Europea; economía de los asentamientos; territorio palestino ocupado; disputas territoriales; normas de origen

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Addameer. (2015, august). G4s complicity in human rights violations. Addameer Prisoner Support and Human Rights Association. Retrieved from http://www.addameer.org/sites/default/files/update_on_g4s_complicity_in_human_rights_violations_edited_pdf.pdf

Bahl, M., Chemlali, H., & Marslev, K. (2017, January 31). Business on Occupied Territory. Danwatch. Retrieved from https://www.danwatch.dk/en/undersogelse/businessonoccupiedterritory/

Beste, R., & Schult, C. (2009, July 14). Will EU Penalize Exports from Israeli Settlements? Spiegel Online. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/more-than-acustoms-dispute-will-eu-penalize-exports-from-israeli-settlements-a-636019.html

B’Tselem. Area C. Retrieved from http://www.btselem.org/topic/area_c

Central Bureau of Statistics. (2016). Foreign Trade Goods – 2016. Retrieved from http://www.cbs.gov.il/www/presentations/16_17_010mazusd.pdf

Commission of the European Communities. (1998). Implementation of the Interim Agreement on Trade and Trade-Related Matters Between the European Community and Israel [Report No. SEC (1998) (695)]. University of Pittsburgh, Archive of European Integration. Retrieved from http://aei.pitt.edu/3345/1/3345.pdf

Council of the European Union. (2006). Presidency Conclusions (Publication No. 15914/1/05). Retrieved from: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/ec/87642.pdf

Council of the European Union. (2012). Council Conclusions on the Middle East Peace Process. Retrieved from https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/130195.pdf

Court of Justice of the European Union. (2010). Judgment in Case C-386/08 Brita GmbH v Hauptzollant Hamburg-Hafen (CURIA Report No. 14/10). Retrieved from: http://curia.europa.eu/jcms/upload/docs/application/pdf/2010-02/cp100014en.pdf

CRH plc. (2016, January 8). Development Strategy Update. CRH global. Retrieved from http://crh.com/docs/press-releases-2016/dev-strat-update-07012016_2.pdf?sfvrsn=2

Dorman, J., & Hayes, D. (2011). Ireland-Palestine Solidarity Campaign Raises a Complaint Against CRH plc (IPSC Publication). Rissell Tribunal on Palestine. Retrieved from http://www.russelltribunalonpalestine.com/en/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/IPSCcomplaint-to-the-OECD-against-CRHplc-3.5.11.pdf

European Commission. (1998). EU-Israel: Implementation of the Interim Agreement in the Framework of a Strengthened Regional Cooperation (Publication No. IP/98/426). Retrieved from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-98-426_en.htm?locale=en

European Commission. (2001, November 23). Notice to Importers: Imports from Israel into the Community (Notice No. C 328/04). European Union Law, Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52001XC1123(02)&from=EN

European Commission. (2005, January 25). Notice to Importers: Imports from Israel into the Community (Notice No. C 20/02). European Union Law, Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52005XC0125(01)&from=EN

European Commission. (2012, August 03). Notice to Importers: Imports from Israel into the EU (Notice No. C 232/03). European Union Law, Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52012XC0803(02)&from=EN

European Commission. (2015, November 11). Interpretive Notice on Indication of Origin of Goods from the Territories Occupied by Israel Since June 1967 (Publication No. C (2015) 7834). European Union External Action. Retrieved from http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/delegations/israel/documents/news/20151111_interpretative_notice_indication_of_origin_of_goods_en.pdf

European Coordination of Committees and Associations for Palestine. (2013, March 5). European Trade and Financial Transactions in Support of Israel’s Illegal Settlements. Retrieved from http://www.eccpalestine.org/european-trade-and-financial-transactionsin-support-of-israels-illegal-settlements/

European Coordination of Committees and Associations for Palestine. (2016, March 03). Israel’s Participation in Horizon 2020: Aiding and Assisting Israeli Violations of International Law. Retrieved from http://www.eccpalestine.org/israels-participation-in-horizon-2020-aiding-and-assisting-israeli-violations-of-international-law/

EU Heads of Mission. (2011). Area C and Palestinian State Building. Retrieved from http://www.ipk-bonn.de/downloads/EU-Report-Area-C.pdf

Euro-Mediterranean Agreement: Establishing an Association between the European Communities and their Member States, of the One Part, and the State of Israel, of the other Part. (2000). Official Journal of the European Communities. Retrieved from http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2010/april/tradoc_146089.pdf

Fletcher, G. (1998). Basic Concepts of Criminal Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ginbar, Y. (1997). Israeli Settlements in the Occupied Territories as a Violation of Human Rights: Legal and Conceptual Aspects (B’Tselem Report No. 14). Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. Retrieved from http://www.btselem.org/sites/default/files2/israeli_settlement_in_the_occupied_territories_as_a_violation_of_human_rights_legal_and_conseptual_aspects.pdf

Hareuveni, E. (2011). Dispossession and Exploitation: Israel’s Policy in the Jordan Valley and Northen Dead Sea (B’Tselem Report). Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. Retrieved from https://www.btselem.org/download/201105_dispossession_and_exploitation_eng.pdf

Hirsch, M. (2002). Rules of Origin as Trade or Foreign Policy Instruments? The European Union Policy on Products Manufactured in the Settlements in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Fordham International Law Journal, 26(3), 572-594.

Human Rights Council. (2013). Report of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission to Investigate the Implications of the Israeli Settlements on the Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the Palestinian People throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Including East Jerusalem (HRC Report No. A/HRC/22/63). United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session22/A-HRC-22-63_en.pdf

Human Rights Council. (2017). Israeli Settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Including East Jerusalem, and the Occupied Syrian Golan (HRC Report No. A/HRC/34/39). United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session34/Pages/ListReports.aspx

Human Rights Watch. (2016). Occupation, Inc. How Settlement Business Contribute to Israel’s Violation of Palestinian Rights. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/01/19/occupation-inc/how-settlement-businesses-contribute-israels-violations-palestinian

Honore, T. (1999). Responsibility and Fault. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Heruti-Sover, Tali. (2017, July 26). This Synagogue Furniture Factory Is Actually a Sweatshop that Tramples Palestinians’ Rights. Haaretz. Retrieved from http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-1.803547

International Court of Justice. (2004). Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (ICJ Report 131). Retrieved from http://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/131/131-20040709-ADV-01-00-EN.pdf

Kadman, N. (2013). Acting the Landlord: Israel’s Policy in Area C, the West Bank (B’Tselem Report). Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. Retrieved from http://www.btselem.org/download/201306_area_c_report_eng.pdf

Kanafani, N., & Ghaith, Z. (2012). The Economic Base of Israel’s Colonial Settlements in the West Bank (MAS Report). Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.mas.ps/files/server/20141911101502-1.pdf

Lynfeild, B. (2015, November 10). EU to Ban West Bank Companies Labeling their Products Made in Israel. Independent. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/eu-to-ban-west-bank-companies-labelling-their-products-made-inisrael-a6729356.html

Lovatt, H. (2016, December 28). After the UN, the EU Must Lead the Way on Israeli Settlements. +972 Blog. Retrieved from https://972mag.com/after-the-un-the-eu-mustlead-the-way-on-israeli-settlements/123995/

Lein, Y. (2002). Land Grab Israel’s Settlement Policy in the West Bank (B’Tselem Report). Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. Retrieved from https://www.btselem.org/download/200205_land_grab_eng.pdf

Middle East Monitor. (2016, March 11). Israeli Cosmetics Company Ahava to Leave the West Bank Following BDS Campaign. Retrieved from https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20160311-israeli-cosmetics-company-ahava-to-leave-the-west-bank-followingbds-campaign/

Ma’an News Agency. (2009, March 27). Norway Invests in Illegal Israeli Settlements in the West Bank. Retrieved from http://www.maannews.com/Content.aspx?id=209464

Neuhauser, C. (2014). Structural Injustice and the Distribution of Forward Looking Responsibility. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 38, 232-251.

OCHA. (2016, December 13). The Humanitarian Impact of de facto Settlement Expansion: The Case of Asfar. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Occupied Palestinian Territory. Retrieved from https://www.ochaopt.org/content/humanitarian-impact-de-facto-settlement-expansion-case-asfar#_ftn11

Plessix, C. (2015) EU3 Resistance to Norms in External Action: The Case of the Future Borders of Israel and Palestine. European Foreign Affairs Review, 20, 103-121.

Paul, M. (2016, March 31). CRH Named in $34 Billion Anti-Israel Lawsuit. The Irish Times. Retrieved from http://www.irishtimes.com/business/manufacturing/crh-named-in-34-billion-anti-israel-lawsuit-1.2592799

Pardo, S., & Peters, J. (2010). Uneasy Neighbors: Israel and the European Union. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute. (2012). Round Table Discussion: The EU-Israel Association Agreement and Trade Abuses in Regards to Settlements Products. Retrieved from http://mas.ps/files/server/20141911185327-1.pdf

Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. (2017, February 16). The Results of The Labor

Force Survey in Palestine, 2016. Retrieved from http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/post.aspx?lang=en&ItemID=1854

Reich, A. (2014). The European Neighborhood Policy and Israel: Achievements and Disappointments. SSRN. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2529456

Siryoti, D., Cesana, S., & Forsher, E. (2013, June 14). Abbas Aide: Quiet Settlement Freeze will Pave the Way for Talks. Israel Hayom. Retrieved from http://www.israelhayom.com/site/newsletter_article.php?id=10005

Shuman, E. (2002, April 11). Europe Moves for Trade Sanctions Against Israel. Israelinsider. Retrieved from http://www.mefacts.com/cached.asp?x_id=11848

Schiff, J. (2008). Confronting Responsibility: The Problem of Acknowledgment. Hypatia, 23(3), 99-117.

Tocci, N. (2009). Firm in Rhetoric, Compromising in Reality: The EU in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Ethnopolitics, 08(3), 387-401.

The Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement (Oslo II). (1995). Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/foreignpolicy/peace/guide/pages/the%20israeli-palestinian%20interim%20agreement.aspx

UN Security Council. (2016). The Situation in the Middle East, Including Palestinian Question (UNSC Resolution 2334). United Nations. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/press/en/2016/sc12657.doc.htm

Walsh, G. (2012). Sustaining Injustice: EU Trade with Israeli Settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (Research Report). Trocaire. Retrieved from https://www.trocaire.org/sites/default/files/resources/policy/sustaining-injustice-eu-trade-with-israelisettlements-in-the-opt.pdf

WHO Profits. (2011). The Case of G4S Private Security Companies and the Israeli Occupation. Retrieved from https://whoprofits.org/sites/default/files/WhoProfits-PrivateSecurity-G4S.pdf

WHO Profits. (2011). Forbidden Fruit: the Israeli Wine Industry and the Occupation. Retrieved from: https://www.whoprofits.org/sites/default/files/WhoProfits-IsraeliWines.pdf

WHO Profits. (2011). SodaStream: A Case Study for Corporate Activity in Illegal Israeli Settlements. Retrieved from https://whoprofits.org/sites/default/files/WhoProfits-ProductioninSettlements-SodaStream.pdf

WHO Profits. (2012). Ahava: Tracking the Trade Trail of Settlement Products. Retrieved from https://whoprofits.org/sites/default/files/ahava_report_final.pdf

WHO Profits. (2013, December 30). Eden Springs. Retrieved from https://whoprofits.org/company/eden-springs

WHO Profits. (2014). Made in Israel: Agricultural Exports from Occupied Territories. Retrieved from https://www.whoprofits.org/sites/default/files/made_in_israel_web_final.pdf

WHO Profits. (2016, November). The Israeli Exploitation of Palestinian Natural Resources: Heidelberg Cement. Retrieved from https://whoprofits.org/content/israeli-exploitationpalestinian-natural-resources-part-ii-heidelberg-cement

Wilson, N. (2016, December 12). Israel: EU Labeling Rules Have Non-Existent Impact. Aljazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/12/israel-eu-labellingrules-existent-impact-161204140008993.html

Younes, A. (2015, November 12). Israeli Anger as EU Agrees to Label Settlement Products. Aljazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/09/israeli-anger-euagrees-label-settlement-products-150920100028754.html

Young, I. (2006). Responsibility and Global Justice: A Social Connection Model. Social Philosophy & Policy Foundation, 102-130.

Yesh Din. (2016). Land Takeover Practices Employed By Israel in the West Bank. Retrieved from https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/files.yesh-din.org/%D7%A4%D7%A8%D7%A7%D7%98%D7%99%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%AA+/Land+Takeover+Practices+++English.pdf




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14422/cir.11.y2018.002

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Licencia Creative Commons
Comillas Journal of International Relations (ISSN 2386-5776) editada por Universidad Pontificia Comillas se encuentra bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Unported.

  

Comillas Journal of International Relations

Universidad Pontificia Comillas

Departamento de Relaciones Internacionales | Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales

Universidad de Comillas, 3-5 - 28049 Madrid

Tel. +34 91 734 39 50 | E-mail: comillas_jir@comillas.edu