La armonización en seguridad de Catar con los Estados Unidos: ¿restricción estratégica o circunstancia favorecedora?

Fred H. Lawson

Resumen


Las relación entre Catar y los Estados Unidos constituye un tipo de jerarquía bilateral mutuamente beneficiosa, que sería útil considerar como si fuera un protectorado. La dinámica inherente a los protectorados sitúa en el inicio al estado protector en una posición de fuerza desproporcionada, e impone severas restricciones sobre las actividades del estado socio. Con el paso del tiempo, esta distribución inicial de beneficios cambia, y el estado socio es capaz de tomar iniciativas en política exterior que pueden contravenir, e incluso dañar, los intereses de seguridad del protector. Simultáneamente, la capacidad del estado protegido de iniciar acciones autónomas e interesadas en las escenas regional y global está determinada por el nivel de amenaza al que se enfrenta proveniente de los estados colindantes. Tomados en conjunto, estos dos factores ofrecen una explicación convincente a las últimas tendencias de la diplomacia catarí.


Palabras clave


protectorado; Catar; Golfo; militar; política exterior; los Estados Unidos

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Bjol, E. (1968). The power of the weak. Cooperation and Conflict, 3, 157-168.

Blanchard, C. M. (2012). Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations. CRS Report to Congress RL 31718. Congressional Research Service, Washington, D. C.

Blanchard, C. M. (2014) Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations. CRS Report RL 31718. Congressional Research Service, Washington, D. C.

Cafiero, G. (2012, June 25). Is Qatar’s foreign policy sustainable? Foreign Policy in Focus. Retrieved from http://fpif.org/is_qatars_foreign_policy_sustainable/

Cooper, A. F. & Momani, B. (2011). Qatar and expanded contours of small state diplomacy. International Spectator, 46, 113-128.

Dumienski, Z. (2014). Microstates as modern protected states: towards a new definition of micro-statehood. Occasional Paper. Centre for Small State Studies: University of Iceland.

Eakin, H. (2011, October 27). The strange power of Qatar. New York Review of Books. Retrieved from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2011/10/27/strange-power-qatar/

Echague, A. (2014). Emboldened yet vulnerable: The changing foreign policies of Qatar and Saudi Arabia. FRIDE Working Paper No. 123. Amsterdam.

Elgstroem, O. (1981). Active foreign policy as a preventive strategy against dependence. Cooperation and Conflict, 16, 237-248.

Gause, F. G. III (2014). Saudi-Iranian rapprochement? The incentives and the obstacles. Visions of Gulf Security. POMEPS Studies No. 25. Project on Middle East Political Science.

Hosman, L. (2009). Dynamic Bargaining the the Prospects for Learning in the Petroleum Industry: The Case of Kazakhstan. Perspectives on Global Development and Technology, 8, 1-25.

International Institute for Strategic Studies (2003). Iran’s nuclear ambitions: Full steam ahead? IISS Strategic Comments, 9.

Kamrava, M. (2013). Qatar: Small State, Big Politics. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press.

Kassimeris, C. (2009). The foreign policy of small powers. International Politics, 46, 84-101.

Katzman, K., Nerurkar, N., O’Rourke, R., Mason, R. C. & Ratner, M. (2012). Iran’s threat to the Strait of Hormuz. CRS Report to Congress R42335. Congressional Research Service. Washington, D. C.

Keohane, R. O. (1971). The big influence of small allies. Foreign Policy, (2), 161-182.

Khatib, L. (2013). Qatar’s foreign policy: The limits of pragmatism. International Affairs, 89, 417-431.

Lake, D. A. (1996). Anarchy, hierarchy and the variety of international relations. International Organization, 50, 1-33.

Lake, D. A. (1999). Entangling relations: American foreign policy in its century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Lake, D. A. (2009). Hierarchy in international relations. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press.

Lawson, F. H. (2004). Political economy, geopolitics and the expanding US military presence in the Persian Gulf and Central Asia. Critique, 13, 7-31.

Legrenzi, M. & Lawson, F. H. (2014). Iran and its neighbors since 2003: New dilemmas. Middle East Policy, 21, 105-111.

Moran, T. H. (1974). Multinational corporations and the politics of dependence: Copper in Chile. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Nuruzzaman, M. (2015). Qatar and the Arab Spring: Down the foreign policy slope. Contemporary Arab Affairs, 8, 226-238.

Osgood, R. E. (1968). Alliances and American foreign policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Pressman, J. (2008). Warring friends: Alliance restraint in international politics. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press.

Schroeder, P. (1976). Alliances, 1815-1945: Weapons of power and tools of management. In K. Knorr (Ed.), Historical dimensions of national security problems (pp. 227-262). Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.

Snyder, G. (1997). Alliance politics. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press.

Starr, H. (1972). War coalitions. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.

Steinberg, G. (2012). Qatar and the Arab Spring: Support for Islamists and new anti-Syria policy. SWP Comments No. 7. German Institute for International and Security Affairs, Berlin.

Talmadge, C. (2008). Closing time: Assessing the Iranian threat to the Strait of Hormuz. International Security, 33, 82-117.

Tow, W. T. (2001). Alliances and coalitions. In M. Hanson & W. T. Tow (Eds.), International relations in a new century (pp. 17-37). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ulrichsen, K. C. (2012a). Qatar: Emergence of a regional power with international reach. E-International Relations. Retrieved from http://www.e-ir.info/2012/01/23/qatar-emergenceof-a-regional-power-with-international-reach/

Ulrichsen, K. C. (2012b). Small states with a big role: Qatar and the United Arab Emirates in the wake of the Arab Spring. HH Skeikh Nasser al-Mohammad al-Sabah Publication Series No. 3. University of Durham.

Ulrichsen, K. C. (2014). Qatar and the Arab Spring. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weitsman, P. A. (1997). Intimate Enemies: The politics of peacetime alliances. Security Studies, 7, 156-192.

Weitsman, P. A. (2014). Waging war: Alliances, coalitions and institutions of interstate violence. Stanford: Stanford Security Studies.

Wilkins, T. S. (2012). Alignment, not alliance – The shifting paradigm of international security cooperation: Toward a conceptual taxonomy of alignment. Review of International Studies, 38, 53-76.

Wright, S. (2011). Foreign policies with international reach: The case of Qatar. In D. Held & K. C. Ulrichsen (Eds.), The transformation of the Gulf. London: Routledge




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14422/cir.i05.y2016.003

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Licencia Creative Commons
Comillas Journal of International Relations (ISSN 2386-5776) editada por Universidad Pontificia Comillas se encuentra bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Unported.

  

Comillas Journal of International Relations

Universidad Pontificia Comillas

Departamento de Relaciones Internacionales | Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales

Universidad de Comillas, 3-5 - 28049 Madrid

Tel. +34 91 734 39 50 | E-mail: comillas_jir@comillas.edu